Small-scale orders and increasing numbers of returns: the list of challenges in e-commerce is long. Then there are customers’ high expectations for very short delivery times and maximum availability. The frequent changes to the range of items means that warehouse stocks have to be constantly adjusted. When combined with the increase in item picking, these factors create expensive and labour-intensive processes. Quality and precision are enormously important, too: returns and corrections are expensive and endanger the relationship between consumers and brands as well as the agreements between warehouses and their customers. Seasonal peaks, which further increase the pressure on warehouse logistics, are a special challenge. The need for optimisation in workflows, deliveries and costs is increasing to an enormous degree.